Piyush Dwivedi. Recently, Prime Minister Narendra Modi had arrived in Germany to attend the G-7 conference. Addressing an overseas Indian program in Munich, he said that “Today’s 21st century India, in the fourth industrial revolution, in Industry 4.0, is not one of the backward, but one of the to lead it. ” Whether in the field of information technology or digital technology, India shines on all fronts. Obviously, the Prime Minister has given this message to the world through this that the new India of today is so capable that it is ready to play a leading role in the process of the fourth industrial revolution that is happening in the world. The theme of the 2016 World Economic Forum meeting was “Industry 4.0”. Since then the idea of the Fourth Industrial Revolution began to take shape in the world.
Then, in 2018, the World Economic Forum started a Center for the Fourth Industrial Revolution in New Delhi. At the time, referring to previous industrial revolutions, Prime Minister Modi had said that when the first industrial revolution took place, India was a slave. India was still a slave when the second revolution took place. When the Third Industrial Revolution took place, India struggled to meet the challenges it faced after independence, but now 21st century India has changed. I think India’s contribution to the fourth industrial revolution will be amazing for everyone. It was then the fourth center of industrial revolution in the world after San Francisco, Tokyo and Beijing, which began in India. However, today the number of these centers has increased to fifteen. It shows the speed with which the world is advancing towards the fourth industrial revolution.
History of the industrial revolutions: Today, as the world moves rapidly toward the fourth industrial revolution, it seems worthwhile to look back and see what the last three industrial revolutions were and what they gave the world. The technology-dependent life we are living in today and everything small and large is being done with the help of machines, the role of previous industrial revolutions is at the root. In this way it would be convenient to define industrial revolutions as different stages in the development of human civilization. The first industrial revolution began in Britain in the 18th century. This revolution was based on the development of steam-powered machinery. The invention of the steam engine by James Watt in 1765 made it easier for humans to operate heavy machinery. This invention made a big difference in the field of transportation and transportation. The invention of the steam engine made it possible to produce electricity in factories. The mechanization of the textile industry gave it an unprecedented boost. It would not be wrong to say that this first industrial revolution made man realize the real power of the machine. The irony is that Britain used much of the power and resources acquired by this industrial revolution to exploit countries deprived of these resources.
It is believed that the period of the Second Industrial Revolution began from the second half of the nineteenth century until the beginning of World War II, that is, 1914. America became its center. Oil, electricity and steel can be called the main pillars of this revolution, on which many inventions of this period were based. Everything became massive as new technological advances and the development of the combustion engine system introduced the use of new energy sources: electricity, gas and oil. Technological advances included new transportation systems such as aircraft built by Wright carriers, automobiles, electric railroads, and boiler-powered ships. In the field of communication, the telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse, the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell, the cinematography developed by the Lumiere brothers, and the radio, and so on. In fact, this Industrial Revolution was a gradual development of the first, but the importance of what it gave to the world remains today. The beginning of the Third Industrial Revolution is considered to be in the last decades of the 20th century. The use of electronics and computing, the invention of the Internet, and the spread of automation and digitization using nuclear power characterized this third phase of the Industrial Revolution. This phase of the industrial revolution still continues.
Effects of industrial revolutions: Industrial revolutions have affected all aspects of human life in a positive and negative way, social, economic, political, and so on. If we look, the history of industrial revolutions is mainly the history of increasingly mechanized production companies. Undoubtedly, this simplified the production process, increased the availability of goods, and improved the standard of living of people, but on the contrary, the importance of human labor also continually diminished. The machines began to do man’s work. Independent artisans could not compete with the factories, which led to the disappearance of artisanal industries. At the same time, due to the establishment of large farms, small farmers had to move from villages to cities in search of employment. As a result, the problem of unemployment has become more or less a challenge for all countries in the world. The gap in economic inequality is also widening.
One of the main benefits of the Industrial Revolution can be considered the reduction of mortality as a result of new discoveries in the medical field, but at the same time the pollution created by machine-driven industries and wild fuel vehicles also increased. the possibilities of people. get sick. The destruction of the environment has happened so much that today a formidable problem has presented itself to the world in the form of a climate crisis. Industrialization favored urbanization, which led to an increase in population.
Obviously, there have been both good and bad aspects of the Industrial Revolution, but in comparison, it must be said that its benefits are more. Anyway, the place and importance of the Industrial Revolution in the world we humans created is now inevitable. If problems arise from the Industrial Revolution, solutions will also emerge. Yes, today, when we talk about the fourth industrial revolution, then the world community, which has gone through the process of three industrial revolutions, should make an effort such that this time the industrial revolution does not show harmful side effects and this revolution should make -ho. be done anyway. Demonstrate that it is increasingly beneficial to the world. The fewer side effects of the fourth industrial revolution, the better for the world.
The situation in India was different during the last three industrial revolutions. He was not in a position to contribute or play any role, but today the situation is different. Today’s India, which has nuclear power, is not only strong and capable in every way nationally, but also occupies a prestigious position on the world stage. We also have an additional capacity of the world’s largest youth population. In this situation, if Prime Minister Narendra Modi says that India’s role in the 21st century industrial revolution will be at the forefront, it is not surprising.
The fourth industrial revolution will materialize from information technology and India is a leader in this field. This revolution will become a means to make the developmental journey of human life towards the “intelligent life.” Undoubtedly, the main tool of the Fourth Industrial Revolution will be the Internet. If we look at India’s position on this issue, then India has the highest mobile data consumption in the world and the cheapest data is also available here. With this, India has also become the largest mobile producer with 300 million production every year. Work is also underway to connect the country’s panchayats to the fiber optic network. So far 1,80,992 grams of panchayats have been connected to the fiber optic network.
Not only that, in recent years, the country’s environment has also changed in terms of startups. Following the launch of the Startup India scheme, as a result of the efforts and momentum of the Modi government, startups are rapidly establishing themselves in the country. So far, more than 72,000 startups have been registered. At the same time, more than 100 of these startups have become unicorns with a valuation of more than a billion dollars. In the last four years (since fiscal year 2017-2018), that number has increased rapidly and each year the number of additional unicorns has increased by 66 percent year-on-year.
So far, 13 percent of computer services, nine percent of health and life sciences, seven percent of education, five percent of professional and business services, five percent of agriculture and five percent food and beverage with 56 different problems in different sectors. have been recognized. These figures show that the spirit of innovation is increasing in the country. India is also moving towards self-sufficiency in the field of defense and space. The country has also been able to rapidly manufacture indigenous vaccines during the Kovid period. All these things show that India is now ready to play a leading role in taking the caravan of the Fourth Industrial Revolution to the fullest.
[शोधार्थी, दिल्ली विश्वविद्यालय]
Edited by: Sanjay Pokhriyal