Maternal Morale UPSC: Go through the statistics on schemes to reduce maternal mortality. Schemes to reduce maternal mortality rate in hindi

The maternal mortality ratio in India has been showing a decline in recent years. There was a time when the maternal and child mortality ratio was very high. There are many states in India where the distance from the village hospital is so much that under conditions of childbirth, the woman used to die while being taken to the hospital. Not only that, because of the distance from the hospital to the homes, because of the attempt to give birth at home and because of the lack of proper care during this time, many women also died. In order to improve this situation, the Government of India has launched many schemes so that the maternal mortality rate can be reduced. Tell us how India’s maternal mortality rate has come down compared to before and understand the schemes by which this work has been possible.

According to the Special Bulletin on MMR issued by the Registrar General of India, India’s maternal mortality ratio (MMR) has decreased by 10 points. The ratio has fallen from 113 in 2016-18 to 103 (a drop of 8.8%) in 2017-19. The MMR in the country has seen a decline to 130 in 2014-16, 122 in 2015-17, 113 in 2016-18 and 103 in 2017-18. Tell us about the schemes through which there has been a reduction in maternal deaths.

Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) in Indian States

With this steady decline, India is on track to meet the National Health Policy (NHP) target of 100/million live births by 2020 and certainly the SDG target of 70 / million live births in 2030. States that have reached this goal in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Some of the states that have achieved this target are Kerala (30), Maharashtra (38), Telangana (56), Tamil Nadu (58), Andhra Pradesh (58), Jharkhand (61), Gujarat (70), Karnataka (83) . ) and Haryana (96). This target has now been increased from 5 to 7 for these states.

The five states in India where maternal deaths are between 100 and 150 are as follows: Uttarakhand (101), West Bengal (109), Punjab (114), Bihar (130), Odisha (136) and Rajasthan (141 ). With this, there are four such states where the MMR is still above 150, the names of these states are: Chhattisgarh (160), Madhya Pradesh (163), Uttar Pradesh (167) and Assam (205 ).

Uttar Pradesh has recorded encouraging success compared to previous eras where maternal mortality has declined further by 30 points, while Rajasthan has recorded 23 points, Bihar 19 points, Punjab 15 points and Odisha 14 points. It is worth mentioning that three states in India (Kerala, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh) recorded a decline of more than 15% in MMR, while 6 states which are Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Bihar, Punjab, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh with a fall of 10-15% There was a decline in the middle. With this, four states – Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Odisha and Karnataka – recorded a decline of 5-10%.

West Bengal, Haryana, Uttarakhand and Chhattisgarh have asked these states to reassess and reassess their efforts to achieve the SDG target and accelerate the decline in MMR due to rising maternal mortality rate.

It is important to know how the strategic investment of the National Health Mission (NHM) through various schemes is continuously growing and paying dividends. Quality of care efforts in conjunction with the Government of India’s Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan, Workroom Quality Improvement Initiative, Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram and Janani Suraksha Yojana have achieved significant gains in MMR. Apart from this, the main programs run by the MoWCD are Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) and Poshan Abhiyan which aim at delivering nutrition to the vulnerable population, especially pregnant and lactating women and children. This achievement reinforces the Government of India’s determination to “ensure safe motherhood” for women by creating a responsive health care system that strives to achieve zero preventable maternal and neonatal deaths. Simultaneously, the Union Health Minister has launched the Maternal Perinatal Child Mortality Monitoring Response Software (MPCDSR) in 2021 to create a single integrated information platform for actionable data for maternal deaths. Simultaneously, the Government of India initiated the creation of a new cadre of ‘Nurse Midwives’ under the Midwifery Initiative to ensure a positive birth experience for women with dignity in the units directed by the attention of the midwife.

Schemes for improving the maternal mortality rate

Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan (PMSMA) was launched in 2016 to provide free and quality antenatal care to pregnant women on the 9th of every month.

Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) was implemented since 2017. It is a Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) scheme under which cash benefits are provided to pregnant women directly into their bank account to cover the their nutritional needs and partially compensate for the loss of wages.

The initiative to improve the quality of the labor room was launched in 2017. The objective of which is to improve the quality of care in delivery rooms and operating rooms. Ensure that pregnant women receive dignified and quality care during and immediately after delivery.

Government of India launched Poshan Abhiyaan since 2018 to improve the nutritional status of children, adolescent girls, pregnant women and lactating mothers.

Anemia Mukt Bharat (AMB): In 2018, the Union Health Ministry launched the ‘Anemia Mukt Bharat’ strategy to reduce the state of anemia due to nutritional and non-nutritional causes in the focus of the life cycle. It is estimated that the strategy will reach around 450 million beneficiaries along with 30 million pregnant women.

The Surakshit Matritva Assurance (SUMAN) scheme came into effect from 2019. Its main objective is to ensure that women receive quality and dignified health care at no cost and to prevent female and neonatal mortality through services to to every woman and baby visiting a public health center To refuse is to offer zero tolerance.

Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) is a demand-side incentive and conditional cash transfer scheme launched in April 2005 with the aim of reducing maternal and child mortality by promoting institutional delivery among pregnant women.

The main objective of Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK) is to eliminate the cost of pregnant women and sick babies by giving them the right to free delivery, including caesarean section, free transport, diagnosis, medicine, other consumables, food and blood in public health. institutions

Abortion care services are strengthened through training of health professionals, provision of medicines, equipment, information and communication (IEC) education, etc.

Delivery Points: Infrastructure, equipment and trained manpower have been strengthened to provide comprehensive RMNCAH+N services at more than 25,000 “delivery points” across the country.

Take care of the operation of the first reference units (FRU) by ensuring labor, blood storage units, reference links, etc.

The Maternal and Child Health (MCH) wing has been established in high burden facilities to improve the quality of care for mothers and children.

Conduct obstetric ICU/HDU in high caseload tertiary care centers across the country to deal with complicated pregnancies.

Capacity building for MBBS in Anesthesia (LSAS) and Cesarean Obstetric Care (EMOC) doctors to address the shortage of specialists in these disciplines, especially in rural areas.

Maternal Death Surveillance Review (MDSR) is implemented at both facility and community level. Its aim is to take corrective action at the appropriate level and improve the quality of obstetric care.

The monthly Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Day (VHSND) is an outreach activity for the provision of maternal and child care, including nutrition.

· Regular IEC/BCC activities are conducted for early registration of ANC, regular ANC, institutional deliveries, nutrition and care during pregnancy etc.

MCP cards and safe motherhood brochures are distributed to pregnant women to educate them about diet, rest, pregnancy risk signs, benefit plans and institutional delivery.

Motion on Maternal Death in Lok Sabha

The Government of India has adopted the SDG target of reducing TMM to less than 70 per 100,000 live births by 2030. According to the Sample Registration System (SRS) report published by the Registrar General of India, India’s maternal mortality ratio has declined by 10 points from 113 per 100,000 live births in SRS 2016-18 to 103 in SRS. 2017-19. The MMR of the State/UT along with the achievement of the SDG targets is included in the annexure.

Status of IMR and MMR in India

According to the Registrar General of India (RGI) Sample Registration System Bulletin, the infant mortality rate has come down from 37 per 1,000 live births in 2015 to 30 per 1,000 live births nationally in 2019.

State/Union Territory Infant Mortality Rate during 2015 to 2019

  • According to the latest report on National Sample Registration System data, India’s maternal mortality ratio for 2016-18 was 113/100,000 live births, down 17 points from 130/100,000 live births in 2014 to 16.
  • An additional 2,500 mothers were saved annually in 2018 compared to 2016. The estimated total annual maternal deaths decreased from 33,800 maternal deaths in 2016 to 26,437 in 2018.
  • Pregnancy-related complications are the leading cause of death in girls aged 15 to 19. Teenage girls are still developing on their own, so they are at higher risk of complications during pregnancy. In addition, child brides are less likely to become pregnant or receive adequate medical care during childbirth in a health facility than women married as adults.

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